Anthemis tinctoria often referred to as the Golden Marguerite or Golden Chamomile is an erect, clump-forming perennial which features profuse 4cm (1.5in) diameter, yellow, daisy-like flowers.
Both the species name 'tinctoria' and the name most popular common name of 'Dyer's Chamomile' refers to this plants historical use for dyeing.
Although this plant has been renamed Cota tinctoria, in horticulture it is still widely referred to by its synonym Anthemis tinctoria, this beautiful aromatic plant produces masses of golden yellow daisies with yellow centres from June through to September. The blooms make a good cut flower lasting a week in the vase. .
A hardy perennial that is fast to flower and is often used as a biennial, the plants bear faintly scented foliage which grows to a height of around 60 to 80cm (24 to 32in) tall. The serrate leaves are fern-like, bi-pinnatifid (finely divided) and downy beneath.
Anthemis tinctoria are native to Europe and Western Asia and are easily grown in average, dry to medium, well-drained soil in full sun. They are tolerant of drought and poor soils but dislike humidity. Good drainage is essential as the plants will do poorly and will be short-lived when grown in heavy, clay soils.
Long summer blooming may be extended by prompt removal of spent flowers. After blooming cut back the foliage to promote basal branches. Deadhead to prevent self-seeding and divide large plants every two years.
These are lovely plants for a sunny well-drained border, covered with bright, single daisy-like flowers throughout the main summer season. The disk is flat at first and becomes conical as the rays wilt. May self seed, making this an ideal plant for naturalised and pollinator friendly plantings, wild flower meadows or just a wild part of your garden.
Sowing: Sow in the early spring or in autumn.
These seeds are always looking for an opportunity to germinate and will do so in almost any conditions. The seeds will germinate in as little as four days at 21°C (70°F), and will grow very fast to flower in the autumn and again in the early summer of the following year.
Seeds can be sown directly where they are to flower at any time from late summer to mid April but the best results are usually obtained from an early spring sowing, preferably onto light well drained soils. Water well when needed, but don’t keep too moist.
Sow directly where they are to flower in a well raked bed ensuring that the soil is fine and crumbly. Scatter the seed, rake lightly and firm down well.
Keep well watered and weeded in early stages. The young seedlings can get nibbled by slugs and snails and very occasionally by aphids, but generally these plants have few problems.
As a Dye Plant:
Dyer's Chamomile produces excellent yellow, buff and golden-orange dyes, used in the past for fabrics.
The fragrant flowers last a long time (two to three weeks) and are not bleached by direct sunlight. Incidentally this is a good way of assessing just how light fast the dye from flowers can be.
The flower heads are picked as they open and are then dried, they can also be frozen without damaging their dyeing properties.
Anthemis tinctoria is native of Eurasia from Siberia to Iran, the Caucasus and surrounding areas and is widely naturalised outside this range. This species of perennial flowering plant in the daisy family (asteraceae, formerly known as the compositae) is very much adapted to hot dry summers and if our climate here continues to warm could be a likely candidate for growing commercially!
It has no culinary or commercial uses and only limited medicinal uses, however, it produces excellent yellow, buff and golden-orange dyes, used in the past for fabrics. Spread by its use in dyeing, it now occurs in the wild in France and eastwards towards Turkey, and is also present further south including in the Iberian Peninsula.
Although this plant has been renamed Cota tinctoria, in horticulture this plant is still widely referred to by its synonym Anthemis tinctoria.
The origin of the current genus name Cota is not known to us (any suggestions are most welcome) however the previous name Anthemis is taken from the Greek anthemon, meaning 'flower,' for their profuse blooming,
Both the species name tinctoria, and numerous common names, such as the English 'Dyers Chamomile' and the French 'Camomilla dei tintori' refer to the plants historical use as a dye plant, usually of cloth.
Common names include Dyer's Chamomile, Golden Marguerite, Yellow Chamomile, or Oxeye Chamomile. Also the Boston Daisy, and Paris Daisy.
The common name of chamomile derives, via French and Latin, from the Greek chamaimēlon meaning 'earth-apple' - chamai meaning 'on the ground' and mēlon meaning 'apple', for their applelike scent.
There are numerous sub-species, hybrids and garden varieties:
- 'Grallagh Gold', A yellow orange hybrid of Cota tinctoria and Cota sancti-johannis.
- 'Kelwayii', Deep yellow petals.
- 'Charme', Yellow petals.
- 'Wargrave variety', Pale yellow petals.
- 'Sauce Hollandaise', White with yellow centre - A hybrid of Cota Tinctoria and Cota punctata.
- 'Suzanna Mitchell'. White petals.
- 'E.C Buxton', Pale yellow petals. RHS AGM (This is an asexually propagated cultivar and cannot be grown from seed).
- Additional Information
Packet Size 1 gram Average Seed Count 1,150 Seeds Seed Form Natural Seeds per gram 2250 seeds per gram Family Asteraceae Genus Anthemis Species tinctoria Synonym Dyer's Chamomile Common Name Golden Marguerite or Golden Chamomile. Other Common Names Yellow Chamomile, or Oxeye Chamomile, Boston Daisy, and Paris Daisy. Other Language Names Fr: Camomilla dei tintori Hardiness Hardy Perennial Hardy A hardy perennial that is fast to flower and is often used as a biennial. Natural Flower Time July to Sept Foliage Aromatic, bright green, feathery foliage. Height 60 to 80cm (24 to 32in) Position Full Sun for best flowering. Germination 7 to 10 Days Notes Herb