Tropaeolum 'Empress of India' is a classic Victorian variety of Nasturtium, the name refers to the title taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876. Prime Minister Disraeli pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament. She reciprocated by giving Disraeli the title of Earl of Beaconsfield.
Nasturtium 'Empress of India' is a classic variety with opulent, velvet crimson-scarlet flowers and impressive dark blue-green foliage. The unusual leaf colour makes it an interesting plant even before it begins to bloom.
Seldom over 30cm (12in) with a neat compact semi trailing habit, It is very easy to grow and perfect for pots, tubs, window boxes or the border. Hardy annual that flowers in the first season.
They make a good plant to use for filling in bare spots throughout the garden or along the edges of your flower and vegetable beds. A single nasturtium seed will produce a spreading plant with lush foliage covering a two square foot area. They can be grown as a groundcover as path edging or in the border or can be planted in containers or window boxes.
The flowers and leaves are both edible: a peppery addition to salads, pastas, omelettes, or used as a garnish.
Sowing: Sow indoors in early spring or direct sow in late spring to early summer.
Soak the seed overnight to enhance germination. They should come up in a week to ten days depending on the soil temperature. In very hot summer regions, plant in autumn for winter bloom.
For earlier flowering they can be sown indoors in spring at a temperature of 15 to 18°C (60 to 65°F). Sow in peat pots or trays of moist seed compost and cover with a very fine sprinkling of compost or vermiculite. Keep the surface of the compost moist but not waterlogged; germination will usually take 14 to 21 days. Transplant to larger pots if required or directly to their final position. Gradually acclimate them to outdoor conditions for 10 to 15 days before planting out after all risk of frost.
Planting nasturtiums is as simple as poking a hole in the soil with your finger and dropping in one of the rather large seeds. Sow directly where they are to flower in late spring onwards. They prefer a sunny open site but will grow in most sites and soils. Seeds germinate in 7 to 21 days and grow quickly in warm weather. The distinctive seedlings and can be told from nearby weed seedlings quite easily.
Plant nasturtiums in well-drained soil in full sun. They will grow in partial shade, but will not bloom well under those conditions. Although they like dry soils and will tolerate drought, water them during the entire growing season to keep them blooming.
Nasturtiums perform well in poor soil, but it is comfortable in average garden soil with loose, light texture as long as the soil is not overly fertile with nitrogen. They are excellent in pots and containers, but may have to be trimmed back periodically to prevent them from crowding out the other plants.
Do not fertilise, except on extremely poor soil, as fertilization will promote leaf growth and suppress flowering. Dead-heading or picking the flowers will prolong blooming. Nasturtium will continue blooming until frost.
Cottage/Informal Garden, Flowers Borders and Beds, Hanging Baskets and Containers, Ideal for Children.
Nasturtium is an excellent companion for many plants are generally thought of as a sacrificial plant for insect pests. Studies say it is among the best at attracting predatory insects.
Nasturtium are a good companion plant to many crops but especially to members of the cabbage family, deterring aphids, and beetles while improving growth and flavour. It is a great trap crop for aphids in particular the black aphids and they also deter woolly aphids, white-flies, cucumber beetles and other pests of the cucurbit family.
It has been the practice of some fruit growers that planting nasturtiums every year in the root zone of fruit trees allow the trees to take up the pungent odour of the plants and repel bugs. It has no taste effect on the fruit.
Use near to tomatoes, radish, cabbage, cucumbers and other squashes and plant under fruit trees.
Rabbits hate nasturtiums and keep well away.
Nasturtium flowers and leaves are edible, so long as your garden is organic and make an attractive addition to salads. They have a slightly peppery taste reminiscent of watercress, with a spicier flavour when grown in sunnier, hotter weather. They taste better when young; older leaves can be bitter. The flowers are less intensely flavoured than the leaves. The flowers are particularly dramatic when mixed with dark greens, such as spinach.
The flowers can be used whole or chopped as a garnish on cream soups, in herb butters or cheese spreads, or on cakes and platters. You could stuff the blossoms with cream cheese or another mixture for an unusual hors d'oeuvre. For the ultimate in fancy tea sandwiches try combining orange nasturtium blossoms and violets on open-faced cucumber sandwiches.
Use the flowers to flavour vinegar (use five same-coloured blossoms per cup of vinegar): cover the blossoms with hot white wine vinegar, let steep overnight, strain out the flowers and replace with fresh blooms for an attractive appearance in clear glass bottles.
Grind the seeds in a pepper mill to be used like black pepper.
Pickle the buds or unripe seedpods as a substitute for capers.
Seeds of Nasturtiums are very easy to harvest but need to be completely dry before storage. After flowering wait until the bright green pods are large and swollen. Pick them from the plant and place in a paper bag. The seed casing hold a lot of moisture and need to be completely dry when they are stored, otherwise they will rot and die. Spread them out on a windowsill for two weeks, once they turn brown and are free from excessive moisture store them in a paper bag in a place that it warm and dry. Remember to label the bag with the name and date.
One thing to note: if you grow 'Empress of India' near other nasturtiums it will hybridise, the striking red bloom colour seems to be recessive. The following year you will have a mix of all colours. If you grow it on its own the deep scarlet colour will stay true.
Nasturtium is originally from the South American Andes, from Bolivia north to Colombia. It was first cultivated in Peru and was introduced to Europe in the 16th century by the Spanish conquistadors. Today the colourful plant is grown in both tropical and temperate climates throughout the world and is available in both dwarf (nanum) and trailing (majus) forms.
Tropaeolum is the nasturtium of gardeners, although not of botanists, and named by Linnaeus, from the Greek tropaion and the Latin tropaeum for 'trophy,' the manner in which the plant grew up a support reminding him of a classical trophy with round shields and golden helmets such as those hung as a sign of victory on a battlefield.
The species name ‘nanum’ is from the Greek nannos meaning 'dwarf'.
The common name Nasturtium was used by the Romans for several cress-like plants and especially garden cress. Pliny records the Latin derivation as Nasus tortus from nasus 'nose' and the verb torquere 'torment', undoubtedly referring to the plant's pungency. It refers to the fact that it has a mustard oil similar to that produced by watercress (Nasturtium officinale). The term 'nasturtium' has now become the botanical genus name for water cress. Of new-world origin the plant was unknown to the Romans.
Nasturtium 'Empress of India' is a classic Victorian variety, the name refers to the title, taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876. Prime Minister Disraeli pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament. She reciprocated by giving Disraeli the title of Earl of Beaconsfield.
Also commonly called Indian Cress or Monks Cress. In many languages, nasturtium bears names that relate to its origin from Latin America such as French cresson d'Inde or Swedish Indiankrasse 'native American cress'.
Other names include refer to the Latin in reference to its import by members of Catholic orders, e.g. Turkish lâtin çiçeği, Bulgarian latinka and Kurdish ladan. The German kapuzinerkresse, French capucine, Dutch capucienerkers, Italian cappuccina, Arabic nabat al-kabbusin and Russian kaputsin-kress also refer to introduction by Catholic monks and the similar shapes of nasturtium flowers and the cowl of Capuchin monks.
Emperor and Empress of India:
The Mughal dynasty ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th century onwards. The 'Emperor of India' was the title used by the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II, and revived by the British monarchs during the British Raj in India.
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rebels seized Delhi and proclaimed the Mughal Bahadur Shah II as Badishah-e-Hind, or Emperor of India. The British crushed the rebellion, captured Bahadur Shah and exiled him to Rangoon, Burma in 1858, whereupon the Mughal dynasty came to an end.
The British East India Company was dissolved and the title "Empress of India" was taken by Queen Victoria from 1 May 1876, nineteen years after India became part of the British Empire.
The British Empire was at the height of its power and Queen Victoria ruled over 450 million people, one quarter of the world’s population and approximately one quarter of the work’s landmass. It stretched so far around the globe from Canada to the Caribbean, Africa, India, Australia and New Zealand that it was said that the sun never set on the British Empire. India was the Jewel in the Crown.
When Victoria died, and her son Edward VII ascended the throne, his title became "Emperor of India". The title continued after India became independent on 15 August 1947 and was not formally abandoned until 22 June 1948 under George VI, although the British monarch continued to be the King of India until it became a republic in 1950.
George VI continued to hold the title King of India for two years during the short Governor-Generalships of Lord Mountbatten and of C. Rajagopalachari until India became a republic on 26 January 1950. George VI remained as King of the United Kingdom and King of Pakistan until his death in 1952.
Pakistan became a republic on 23 March 1956, so Elizabeth II was Queen of Pakistan for four years.
- Additional Information
Packet Size 5 grams Average Seed Count 40 Seeds Family Tropaeolaceae Genus Tropaeolum Species nanum Cultivar Empress of India Common Name Nasturtium, Compact Type Hardiness Hardy Annual Flowers Crimson-Scarlet in June to October Foliage Mid Green Height 18-25cm (9-12in) Spread 63cm (25in) Position Full Sun Aspect West or South facing. Exposed or Sheltered Soil Well Drained (Can thrive in poor soil)